According to UN estimates, every year the world uses 500 billion plastic bags while half of the plastic used is of single use or in disposable items such as grocery bags, cutlery and straws. Each year, at least eight million tonnes of plastic end up in the oceans, the equivalent of a full garbage truck every minute. Efforts are on around the world, to mitigate impacts of plastic pollution. China recently moved to ban the import of 24 types of solid waste including plastic. Britain’s 25-year environment plan launched by Prime Minister Theresa May this January has a specific target of eliminating avoidable plastic waste by 2042. Norway not only recycles all of its plastic, it also imports waste from other countries to run its waste-to-energy incineration plants.

India’s struggle with plastic is evident from the fact 70% of total plastic consumption is discarded as waste. Size of plastic industry in India is estimated to be INR 110,000 crore, with over 30,000 plastic manufacturing units supplying over 13 million tonnes of plastic per year, of this nearly 9 million tonnes ends up as waste and of this nearly 60% is estimated to be re-cycled. As per an estimate around 9.5 MTPA of plastic waste is generated in country, which aggregated to about 25,940 TPD. As per a study – Assessment and Quantification of Plastic Waste Generated in 60 Cities – published by the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), there is little or no processing of either Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) or plastic waste (PW) in most Indian cities and the metropolises, barring Ahmedabad and Pune, to some extent. According to the study, it is dumped at the disposal site, following the method of crude dumping, where the waste is neither spread nor covered. Across eight metro cities, Kolkata generated 116.79 kg of plastic waste per MT of total Municipal Solid Waste, followed by Delhi (102.98kg/MT of MSW) and Ahmedabad (105.07kg/MT of MSW). While no post treatment operation of MSW or PW was performed in either Delhi or Kolkata, Ahmedabad was placed better with efforts being taken to treat organic waste and reduce MSW in landfills using a gas-based power plant.

If cannot be handled, strategy to reduce the plastic waste generation is in as many as 18 states across India, where a blanket ban on single use plastic is imposed. After India’s capital city of Delhi, Maharashtra, India’s second most populous state, which produces plastic products worth Rs. 500 billion, notified a state-wide a ban on most single-use plastics in April 2018. In March 2016, the erstwhile Plastic Waste (Management and Handling) Rules 2011 were replaced by the Plastic Waste Management Rules 2016, notified by the Ministry of Environment and Forest & Climate Change (MoEF&CC). This provides a regulatory framework for management of plastic waste by urban local bodies as well as the waste generators (individual household, institutions, residential and commercial establishments and defence establishments).The government has notified the Plastic Waste Management Rules, 2016, which regulate manufacture, sale, distribution and use of plastic carry bags including those of compostable plastic, and plastic sheets for packaging or wrapping applications.

Amongst various techniques and methodologies used for recycling plastic waste, plastic waste to fuel oil (P2F)will be a big game changer for the urban local bodies managing plastic waste and the overall economy at large, this given that India depends on imports for most of its crude oil requirements. P2F is achieving commercialization in various developed markets and with every passing day the technology is maturing even in India market. Over the 4-5 years, conversion of plastic waste to fuel has been talked about and multiple small sized plants have been installed in India, some has met with failure while some have become example of how to get the concept as well as business right India has multiple demonstration projects. Unlike biofuel, where one has to grow the feedstock that is eventually converted into fuel, in case of plastic to fuel, there is abundance of feedstock readily available only the supply chain needs to well managed and the market for the product needs to be enabled through regulatory push. The push towards PW2F is inevitable and it will be enabled by government aid as well, anticipating the emerging dynamics, even large companies will emerge in this opportunity that will build scale and accelerate Industrialization of PW2F, residue of which can easily replace fuel oil used by industrial boilers, gensets etc. InfraInsights research report “Plastic Waste to Oil: Evaluating Multibillion Business Opportunity Awaiting to Unfold”, aims to provide a indepth perspective on the opportunity and a business plan to take informed “Go-No Go” decision.

  1. Overview on Plastic & Plastic Waste in India
    1. Plastic Production Landscape in India
    2. Plastic Waste Generation in India
      1. Metro, Tier 1 and Tier 2 Cities
    3. Plastic Waste Handling in India
      1. By Municipal Bodies [Across Metros, Tier 1 & Tier 2 Cities]
      2. Case studies
    4. Plastic Recycling & Re-use in India
      1. By Public Sector
      2. By Private Sector
      3. Others
    5. Methods & Techniques deployed for recycling and re-use of plastic in India
  2. Regulations & Policies Driving Plastic Waste Recycling & Re-Use
    1. States / Cities where plastic use are banned or will be banned
    2. Directives given to private and public sector on recycling and reuse of plastic as against dumping in open
  3. Smart Cities Plastic Waste Management Practices
  4. About Plastic to Fuel Technology
    1. Pyrolysis of plastic (polyethylene & polypropylene) [process flow chart]
    2. Machines / Equipment
    3. Grades of plastic that can be converted / cannot be converted
    4. Mobile reactor vs bulk production plant
    5. Quality of Fuel
  5. Plastic to Fuel in Developed Markets
    1. Success & Failures
    2. Lessons to be learnt
  6. Plastic to Fuel in India: Journey So Far
    1. Introduction of the technology in India
    2. Early demonstration plants [Indian Institute of Petroleum under aegis of CSIR
    3. Plants achieved full commercialization
      1. Public Private Partnership
      2. Public
      3. Private [Uflex, Ventana, Ramky and other]
      4. CSR
    4. Early Success and Failure Case Studies
      1. Detailed profiling of capacity, supply chain, output quality, price, market and monetization
  7. Plastic to Fuel in India: Journey Ahead
    1. Municipalities: P2F announcements, plans and budget blueprint by major urban local bodies in India [Focus on metros, tier 1 cities (Indore, Raipur, Bhubaneshwar, Pune etc..]
    2. Refiners like RIL, IOCL, BPCL
    3. Plastic Producers
  8. Estimating Volume Potential of Oil Production Under PW2F by 2030
    1. Optimistic Scenario
    2. Pessimistic Scenario
    3. Realistic Scenario
  9. Plastic to Fuel Market Key Stakeholders
    1. Supplier of Waste Plastic
    2. Supplier of Technology
    3. Quality Testing of Produce
    4. End User Industries
  10. Plastic to Fuel Technology & EPC Supplier in India
    1. PolyCycl Pvt. Ltd
    2. ANZ India
    3. Clean Oceans International
    4. SAMKI Group
    5. Ramky Environment & Others
  11. Permits and Clearances Required to Set-up Plastic to Fuel Plant in India
    1. Land Acquisition
    2. Different regulatory clearances like MoEF, Pollution Control Board etc..
    3. Timeline of each clearances and respective agencies for clearances
    4. Go – No Go zones where these can / cannot be setup
  12. End use sectors that can use P2F product
    1. Industrial Boilers
    2. Brick Kiln etc
    3. Generators
    4. Diesel based Agriculture Pumps etc
  13. Estimating projected market for PW2F reactors / process equipment in India?
  14. Business Models Prevalent in India
    1. Collection – Storage – Processing – Centralize & Decentralize production – localized and mass marketing
  15. Business Plan for a P2F Project in India
    1. Cost [Capex & Opex ]
      1. Land, Plant & Machinery, Commissioning etc
      2. Raw Material, Additives, Agents, Labour, Electricity, Other Utilities
      3. Packaging & Transportation
    2. Financing [Equity, Debt, Subsidy, Taxation etc]
    3. Revenue
    4. Project Viability [Equity Pay Back, Equity IRR, DSCR, Net Profit Margin
  16. Location Best fit for P2F Project Set-up
  17. Factors for and against P2F
  18. Go – No Go Recommendations

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